While rescue and adoption have largely replaced traditional pet sales, these marketing channels have increasing risks, especially since the “no-kill shelter” movement is being promoted by many.

In addition to risk from infectious, contagious diseases, sometimes fatal, there are risks from the adoption of dogs with known behavioral abnormalities, including predatory aggression.

As reported in the Zanesville’s TimesRecorder by Shelly Schultz in “Vet confronts commissioners about conditions at dog adoption center,  a veterinarian responsible for oversight at an animal shelter—Dr. Brian Williams—expressed his concern about dogs being adopted despite his risk-based assessment of their behavior.  As the National Animal Interest Alliance posted about Dr. Williams concerns, adopting out dogs known to be aggressive, creates “an immediate risk to public safety . . . [and] also threatens the mission of rescue as a whole.”

Unfortunately, the adoption of aggressive dogs has been reported to me a number of times.  In many cases, the dogs are immediately re-adopted to unwitting families even after viciously attacking and injuring the previous adopter.

As Dr. Williams observed, there are some dogs that are not suitable as pets for most people, based on their known aggressive behavior.   A shelter or rescue can attempt to rehabilitate such dogs, but even so, should inform any potential adopter about the complete medical and behavioral history and strongly consider euthanasia if the dog cannot be placed in a home without risking injury to humans or other animals.

For more, read the TimesRecorder article and NAIA’s blog.

NJ Bill S3558, which strips the NJ Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NJSPCA) of law enforcement authority, passed both legislative houses and only awaits the Governor’s signature or his failure to veto before becoming law.  As previously discussed, this measure is long overdue, as animal rights advocates, animal welfare organizations, animal-related businesses and animal owners all agree.

Two NJ State Commission Reports concluded that the “gun-carrying wannabe cops” who serve as agents of the NJSPCA, are running a dysfunctional organization that fails to enforce the animal cruelty laws the agency was established to enforce more than a decade ago.

Based on my experience, first as a private veterinary practitioner, then as the Director, Division of Animal Health, New Jersey Department of Agriculture and the N.J. State Veterinarian, and currently as an animal law attorney, the NJSPCA fails to adequately and promptly investigate animal cruelty cases, and instead abuses its law enforcement authority by impermissibly intimidating and victimizing animal owners and welfare organizations to advance its own interests and not for any legitimate animal protective purpose.

That is why it is long past time to amend and update the State’s animal cruelty laws and place law enforcement authority solely within local and county law enforcement agencies.

For those agents and members of the NJSPCA who are dedicated to preventing animal cruelty, there will be opportunities to provide assistance under the new legal scheme.

Hopefully, the Governor will end his term with the historic and long-awaited act of advancing the protection the State provides to animals by requiring professional law enforcement agencies to enforce the animal cruelty laws instead of the ineffective volunteer organization that has failed to do so for years.


As they had promised, the Nonhuman Rights Projects, Inc. (the “petitioner”) filed another petition seeking personhood rights through a writ of habeas corpus for 3 elephants in Connecticut owned by R.W. Commerford & Sons, Inc. (the “Commerford Zoo”) on November 13, 2017.

Long before the scheduled status conference, which was to be held on February 27, 2018, the Court filed a Judgment of Dismissal and related Memorandum of Decision on December 26, 2017.

Relying on expert testimony, by way of Affidavits, petitioner alleged that elephants, including the subjects of its petition “are autonomous beings who live extraordinarily complex emotional, social, and intellectual lives and who possess those complex cognitive abilities sufficient for common law personhood and the common law right to bodily liberty protected by the common law of habeas corpus, as a matter of common law liberty, equality, or both.”  Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc. v. R.W. Commerford & Sons, Inc., No. LLI-cv-17-5009822, slip op. (Conn. Super. Ct. Dec. 26, 2017).

The court described the issue at hand which it summarily dismissed:

The issue is whether the court should grant the petition for writ of habeas corpus because the elephants are ‘persons” entitled to liberty and equality for the purposes of habeas corpus.  The court denies the petition on the ground that the court lack subject matter jurisdiction [based on lack of standing] and the petition is wholly frivolous on its face in legal terms.”  Id.

On the issue of standing, under the “next friend” theory, the court opined”

The burden is on the next friend clearly to establish the propriety of his status and thereby justify the jurisdiction of the court . . . [holding] [b]ecause the petition has failed to allege that it possesses any relationship with the elephants, the petitioner lacks standing.”  Id. (emphasis in original).

On its website, the petitioner states :

we are studying the decision and will likely either seek to amend our habeas corpus petition to add a sentence stating that Minnie, Karen, and Beulah have no significant relationships with anyone able to to file a habeas corpus action against their captors or we will refile our lawsuit so that our petition includes this sentence.

Under the “frivolous” prong, the Court found:

even if the petitioner here had standing, resolution in its favor would require this court to determine that the asserted liberty interests in its petition are assured by statute, constitution, or common law, i.e., that an elephant is a person for the purposes of this land’s laws that protect the livery and equality interests of its persons . . . [and] [b]ased on the law as it stands today, this court cannot so find [that there is a possibility or probability that the Court would find that an elephant is a legal person entitled to those same liberties extended to humans].

The Court “points the petitioner to this state’ laws prohibiting cruelty to animals” but that is not petitioners’ goal-it is instead to “help build a national and global movement to win legal personhood and rights for nonhuman animals.”  See NHRP, Inc.

In civil litigation, when a court finds one party has filed a frivolous lawsuit against another, at least in federal court, the victimized party may request sanctions, in certain circumstances.  See, generally, Fed. R. Civ. P. 11.  Should petitioner, now that it has been on notice that at least this Court has determined that its petition is “frivolous” be required to pay for the cost of subsequent litigation or will citizens be required to fund such cases in the future?

S2508, Nosey’s Law, which “prohibits use of elephants and other wild or exotic animals in traveling animal acts” was passed by both houses in the N.J. legislature on January 8, 2017 and is headed to the Governor’s desk.

The bill, if signed, would put many of the state’s zoos and other businesses that include educating the public about amazing exotic species, out of business.  Therefore, hopefully, it will be vetoed by the Governor as one of his last official acts.

The bill was amended before the final vote to include banning “other wild or exotic animals” in addition to “elephants” from use in traveling animal acts.

The definitions of “Mobile or traveling housing facility.” “Performance,” and “Traveling animal act” make this bill extremely problematic and would have devastating and unreasonable results:

  1. As used in this section:

     “Mobile or traveling housing facility” means a vehicle, including a truck, trailer, or railway car, used to transport or house an animal used for performance.

“Performance” means any animal act, carnival, circus, display, exhibition, exposition, fair, parade, petting zoo, presentation, public showing, race, ride, trade show, or similar undertaking in which animals perform tricks, give rides, or participate as accompaniments for the entertainment, amusement, or benefit of a live audience.

“Traveling animal act” means any performance which requires an animal to be transported to or from the location of the performance in a mobile or traveling housing facility.


Based on these definitions, any wild or exotic animals transported to one of the state’s zoo’s or exotic animal exhibits would be banned.

This includes the Cape May Zoo, the Camden Aquarium, and Great Adventures, to name a few.

And the type of animals to be banned, based on the definitions promulgated by NJ DEP include:

          ‘Exotic mammal, bird, reptile or amphibian,’ [which] means any nongame species or mammal, bird, reptile or amphibian not indigenous to New Jersey.

‘Wild bird” means any bird other than a native, introduced, or feral game bird as defined in N.J.S.A 23:4-49 and other than a domesticated bird such as a chicken, turkey, guinea fowl, goose, duck, pigeon, or peafowl. ‘Wild bird’ also means the egg of a wild bird.

N.J.A.C. 7.25-4.1, et seq.

DEP requires permits for owners of exotic mammals including ferrets, llama, and exotic sheep or goats (undefined).  While llama, sheep and goats (and ratites) are also considered livestock, they would still be banned from exhibitions, including state and county fairs under the provisions of this bill.

Wild and exotic bird eggs, transported for incubation, even if to preserve endangered species would also be banned.


Such unintended consequences of this bill can only be addressed if it is vetoed.

This is the time of the year than many consider donating to a worthy cause.  Here are a few organizations that exist to help unwanted, aged and retired horses find homes and veterinary care.

The Unwanted Horse Coalition “is a broad alliance of equine organizations that have joined together under the American Horse Council to educate the horse industry about the problem of the unwanted horse.”

The Unwanted Horse Colaition:

grew out of the Unwanted Horse Summit, which was organized by the American Association of Equine Practitioners and held in conjunction with the American Horse Council’s annual meeting in Washington, D.C. in April 2005. The summit was held to bring key stakeholders together to start a dialogue on the plight of the unwanted horse in America. Its purpose was to develop consensus on the most effective way to work together to address this issue. In June 2006, the Unwanted Horse Coalition was folded into the American Horse Council and now operates under its auspices.

Another nonprofit, A Home for Every Horse,

created in 2011, is the result of a partnership between the Equine Network, the nation’s leading publisher of equine-related content, and the Unwanted Horse Coalition. The AHFEH program helps connect rescue horses in need of homes with people looking for horses. Registered 501(c)(3) rescue organizations can list their horses for free on Equine.com, the world’s largest horse marketplace, where they can be seen by 300,000 visitors each month.If that is the case for you, I invite you to consider donating to the Ryerss Farm for Aged Equines, a nonprofit that has been dedicated to providing a home to horses that have no other home.

Ryerss Farm for Aged Equines “is the oldest non-profit horse sanctuary in United States and provides a haven for horses of all breeds, sizes, and walks of life. The residents of the 300-acre farm are primarily retired horses—aged 20 or older—many with chronic health issues. Upon arrival, all veterinary care, farrier care, dental care, food, bedding, and shelter is provided for the rest of the horse’s life.

Ryerss Farm’s mission includes:

caring for aged, abused or injured horses, providing a home where they can spend their golden years out to pasture.  The horses at Ryerss are never worked, go to auction or are used for experiments.  They simply spend their days grazing and enjoying life with their friends, as part of the herd.

Ryerss Farm received the 2017 Lavin Cup, an award “[k]nown as the American Association of Equine Practitioner [AAEP]’s equine welfare award . . . [which] recognizes a non-veterinary organization or individual that has distinguished itself through service to improve the welfare of horses.”

As AAEP noted:

Ryerss’ legacy began in Philadelphia in 1888, established by Anne Waln-Ryerss who was a passionate advocate for the city’s abused and neglected horses. The first horse arrived on the farm in 1889 and Ryerss’ early residents were old hunters, ponies, workhorses, and retired horses that used to pull Philadelphia’s fire engines. Ryerss is open to the public daily and receives approximately 5,000 visitors each calendar year.

The Unwanted Horse Veterinary Relief Campaign was established by Merck Animal Health and the American Association of Equine Practitioners Homes “to help the overburdened equine rescues and retirement facilities provide healthcare so they can rehabilitate, revitalize and, ultimately, re-home America’s unwanted horses.”

Through the Unwanted Horse Veterinary Relief Campaign ” qualifying equine rescue and retirement facilities can receive complimentary equine vaccines for horses in their care, protecting the horses’ health and making them more adoptable.”

For veterinarians and equine rescue organizations who want more information about this program, please visit The Unwanted Horse website.

It looks like sister bills in New Jersey that would provide “immunity from civil and criminal liability for rescue of [an] animal from motor vehicle under inhumane conditions” are moving through the lame duck session of the state legislature.

The senate version, S2899, a senate substitution, was passed on Dec. 7, 2017 during a session vote.  The assembly version, A3636 passed last year.  According to Tom Leach, the Executive Director of both the New Jersey Association for Biomedical Research and the Pennsylvania Society for Biomedical Research, since “the bills were amended on the floor of the Senate, it will need to pass the full Senate then go back to the Assembly for concurrence with the Senate amendments.  The assembly vote that is needed is a floor vote.  There is no need for further committee activity.  Both houses still have multiple voting sessions scheduled before the end of the legislative session on January 9th.”

Of concern is the fact that the bills do not provide sufficient guidance to the public about what constitutes “inhumane conditions adverse to the health or welfare of the animal.”  The “inhumane conditions adverse conditions to the health or welfare of the animal” enumerated in the bill, include “heat, cold, inadequate ventilation, or other circumstances likely to endanger or cause bodily injury or death the animal.”

If those “inhumane conditions” exists,

any person who, without license or privilege to otherwise enter the motor vehicle, may in good faith enter the vehicle in order to remove, or render emergency care to, the animal if the person reasonably believes that the health or welfare of the animal may be at risk under such circumstances, provided that prior to entering the motor vehicle the person contacted appropriate rescue personnel to report the circumstances and made a reasonable attempt to locate the owner or operator of the motor vehicle or other person responsible for the animal unless exigent circumstances warrant foregoing such actions.

See A3636  (emphasis added).

Since anyone would be able to break into a vehicle and rescue an animal if these bills become law, these vague and ambiguous provisions could result in unneeded “rescues” that could end up injuring animals and unnecessarily destroying property.  As long as a person acts in “good faith,” they will be immune from criminal or civil liability.

Some pets would suffer if not rescued when locked in cars when the ambient temperature is high with the windows closed and no air conditioning on.  Those pets may suffer from heatstroke, but if so, immediate veterinary treatment is imperative, not optional as permitted in the current bills.  If someone in good faith believes an animal must be rescued due to inhumane conditions harmful to their health, then each rescued animals should receive immediate veterinary care.

Since no one in New Jersey other than licensed veterinarians are permitted to diagnose or treat conditions in animals, there should be provisions for mandatory veterinary treatment as soon as animals, suffering from any inhumane conditions, are rescued from vehicles.

As described on Consultant, A Diagnostic Support System for Veterinary Medicine, developed by one of my former mentors, Dr. Maurice E. White at Cornell University, “heatstroke is a multisystemic disorder usually associated with forced confinement of animals in a hot environment such as a locked car.”

The associated clinical signs of heatstroke include:

Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal upper airway breathing sounds, Anorexia, Arrhythmia, Ataxia, Blindness, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Cold skin, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Constant or increased vocalization, Cyanosis, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dryness of skin or hair, Dryness oral mucosa, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Epistaxis, Excessive salivation, Fever, Generalized weakness, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Mydriasis, Oral cavity, tongue swelling, Pale, Paraparesis, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Red or brown urine, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Tremor, Vomiting or regurgitation, Warm skin, Weak pulse.

In a study titled “Hemostatic abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke” abnormalities in hemostatic tests run (platelet count, prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times (PT and aPTT, respectively), antithrombin activity (ATA), total protein C activity (tPCA), fibrinogen, and D-dimer concentrations) on 30 dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke were identified.  18 of the 30 dogs survived.  The study found:

[h]emostatic derangements are common in dogs with naturally occurring heatstroke. Alterations in PT, aPTT, tPCA, and fibrinogen concentrations appear to be associated with the outcome at 12–24 hours PP, exemplifying the need for serial measurement of multiple laboratory hemostatic tests during hospitalization, even when within reference interval on presentation. The development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), as defined in this cohort, was not associated with mortality; however, nonsurvivors had significantly more coagulation abnormalities during the first 24 hours PP.

Good Samaritans and law enforcement officials, including animal control and humane officers or agents, assisting pets experiencing inhumane conditions in locked vehicles, should be required to bring that pet immediately to a veterinarian, once rescued.  It should not be optional.

Americans for Medical Progress (AMP) “supports research involving animals when it is necessary to advance our understanding of biological processes.” and provides tools for “public outreach that builds understanding and appreciation for necessary and humane animal research.”

The latest tool in their toolbox is a video “designed to be a conversation starter about the importance of animals in research and the high standards of care they receive,” titled “Love, Care, Progress,” which you can view here.

The videp features

[r]esearch professionals, including a trainer, scientist, animal behaviorist, surgical manager, and veterinarian talk about caring for the animals in their charge, and their pride in the progress made possible in studies with these animals. Several dogs can be seen enjoying their time with technicians in a facility playroom.

Other associations that support animal research, including the National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR), also explain why “Animal Lovers Should Support Animal Research, Not Condemn It” as NABR President Matt Bailey explained on FoxNews :

Every year, 12 million cats and dogs in the United States are diagnosed with cancer. For their owners, that diagnosis is both emotionally and financially devastating. The initial cancer diagnosis alone can cost $2,000. Subsequent chemotherapy and radiation can run up to $10,000.

Fortunately, scientists are on the cusp of discovering treatments that could help pets with cancer at a much lower cost – if we let them continue the animal medical research needed to make those discoveries. But all over the country, self-professed animal lovers are lobbying for limits on – or even an end to – medical research involving animals.

That’s counterproductive, because animals are among the primary beneficiaries of such research. Consequently, animal lovers should be among the biggest supporters of animal medical research.

Matt goes on to describe how research has saved the lives of animals and humans.

While the use of animals in research remains critically important, efforts have long been employed to reduce, replace, and refine that use when possible.  In some states, like New Jersey, if there is an appropriate alternative testing method that can replace traditional animal testing methods, it must be employed “[w]hen conducting any product testing in the State . . .[but this does not] apply to any animal test conducted for the purposes of medical research.”  N.J.S.A. 4:22-59(a).  If animal testing is required to comply with other state or federal laws to ensure the health or safety of consumers, the requirement does not apply.

In time, we may be smart enough to develop reliable simulators and other tools that can replicate animal models, but until that time, researchers will continue to treat animals in their care humanely, while they work to save lives.

Senator Lesniak introduced S3558 to address deficiencies in the enforcement of New Jersey’s animal cruelty laws by state and county societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals.  Several state reports had concluded that the centuries-old law granting law enforcement authority of animal cruelty investigations to part time volunteers was overdue for a drastic change.  Lesniak, having sponsored a 2006 law that was supposed to address deficiencies in governmental oversight of these volunteer groups, admitted that those measures had not worked sufficiently.  Therefore, the current amendments were necessary.

The bill, which “revises the enforcement of animal cruelty laws in the State by transferring the power of humane law enforcement from the New Jersey Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NJSPCA) and county societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals (county societies) to a county prosecutor animal cruelty task force in each county, and a municipal humane law enforcement officer appointed in each municipality” received widespread support from those testifying before the Senate Economic Growth Committee where it passed out of committee with nearly unanimous support.

However, it has not yet been approved by the Senate Budget and Appropriations Committee or the Assembly.

I have been critical of the conduct of the NJSPCA for some time, based on my experience trying to work with them as a private large animal clinician, then as the Director of the Division of Animal Health at New Jersey Department of Agriculture, and currently as an attorney representing clients impermissibly harmed by NJSPCA’s conduct.  In each role, I have concluded that, while some agents or officers are well-meaning, the agency is ineffective at performing their fundamental role-protecting animals in the state.

For those in the state who own, raise, breed and sell horses, cattle, swine, rabbits, poultry, small ruminants and other agricultural species, this proposed change should be welcome.

At the 102nd State Agricultural Convention, held in Atlantic City on February 8-9, 2017, Resolution #6 was passed urging the agricultural community to “evaluate the consistency and appropriateness of the implementation of the Humane Standards [of care for NJ’s agricultural animals] by the SPCA and other humane-law enforcement personnel who are tasked to respect and follow them when enforcing animal-cruelty statutes,” and encouraging the legislature to fund NJDA’s animal cruelty investigations, which are necessary to ensure that the state laws are properly enforced.

Among other deficiencies, NJSPCA routinely fails to notify the NJDA when it receives complaints about the care of agricultural animals.  Such notification is required pursuant to N.J.A.C. 2:8-8.3 (f) which states:

The NJSPCA, county SPCAs or other State or local government authority receiving a complaint shall immediately notify the New Jersey Department of Agriculture and, if the complaint is in writing, provide a copy to the NJDA at the address provided in N.J.A.C. 2:8-8.3(c).

The regulation requires notification of the NJDA for 2 main reasons:  1) to make sure that animal health officials could immediately investigate to determine whether contagious, infectious diseases were present, and if so, prevent their spread to other facilities; and 2) to make sure that a qualified animal health official was investigating the case (a certified livestock inspector-someone who has been certified by the State Veterinarian as a veterinarian or veterinary technician familiar with the species under investigation).  It will be critical for NJDA to properly train all municipal, county and state agencies that will be responsible for enforcing the animal cruelty statutes, if the bill is adopted, about the provisions governing humane care of agricultural animals in the state.

There has been widespread support of these proposed amendments to the state’s animal cruelty statutes.  Like in NYC, where the ASPCA voluntarily relinquished enforcement of the City’s animal cruelty statutes to the NYPD, it is long past time that New Jersey followed suit.

On Wednesday, November 15, 2017, Las Vegas City Council voted to enact “Bill No. 2017-40 – which repeals a formerly adopted ordinance which prohibits pet shops from selling or disposing of dogs, cats or potbellied pigs other than those obtained from an animal care facility or nonprofit animal rescue organization.”

As both the American Kennel Club (AKC) and Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) stated in written testimony, the misrepresentations about the puppies sold at pet stores harms puppies, breeders, pet stores and consumers by removing a highly regulated source of healthy puppies for people desiring a lifelong pet with specific behavioral and physical characteristics they prefer for their families.

As PIJAC explained:

Even as we have worked to raise standards of care, PIJAC has battled misconceptions about the quality of pet store animals and the sources of such animals. The unsubstantiated assertion that pet store animals generally come from substandard breeding facilities is commonly used as a smoke screen to obscure the fact that the overwhelming majority of pet owners who choose to purchase from pet stores bring home a happy, healthy pet and remain highly satisfied with their pet store experience.

The reality is that almost all pet store puppies originate from USDA licensed breeders who are regularly inspected and found to comply with appropriate care standards. By contrast, many of the dogs and cats from other sources, including rogue Internet operators, private sales, shelters and rescues, did not come from licensed breeders.

AKC stated:

An important part of ensuring the success of a pet with a new owner is to ensure that it is an appropriate fit with the owner’s lifestyle. Treasured pets may be obtained from a variety of sources, including breeders, pet stores, rescues, and local shelters.

Under the current law, families in Las Vegas have lost an important source for choosing a quality pet that is the best fit for their lifestyle and circumstances.

There is no credible evidence that puppies purchased from pet stores originate from “puppy mills,” large commercial substandard breeding facilities, or that pet store puppies contribute to shelter populations-misrepresentations that form the bases for pet store sourcing bans.

Las Vegas City Council repealed the pet store sourcing ban. Hopefully, other communities will follow suit.

On a related note, Circuit Judge Hamilton dissented from the majority opinion in a constitutional challenge to a pet store ban in Chicago (Park Pet Shop, Inc. v. City of Chicago, 872 F. 3d 495 (7th Cir. 2017) “[o]n two points critical to the federal Commerce Clause claim.”

First, the Supreme Court itself has not yet confined the balancing test under Pike v. Bruce Church, Inc., 397 U.S. 137 (1970), as narrowly as my colleagues suggest. The majority writes that Pike balancing comes into play ‘only when the law discriminates against interstate commerce in practical application.’ Ante at 502 (emphasis in original), citing National Paint & Coatings Ass’n v. City of Chicago, 45 F.3d 1124, 1131 (7th Cir. 1995) . . . . The majority would apply Pike only when the challenged law gives ‘local firms any competitive advantage over those located elsewhere’ . . . The Supreme Court’s more recent discussions of Pike, since we decided National Paint in 1995, are difficult to reconcile with this approach. For example, the Court has explained that federal courts ‘generally leave the courtroom door open to plaintiffs invoking the rule in Pike, that even nondiscriminatory burdens on commerce may be struck down on a showing that those burdens clearly outweigh the benefits of a state or local practice.’


Judge Hamilton also found that “the majority errs by applying a stringent version of Iqbal and Twombly to find that plaintiffs have not plausibly alleged sufficiently burdensome effects on interstate commerce.”


Judge Hamilton found that the complaint had sufficiently alleged plausible impacts that the pet store sourcing ban would result in the alleged harms, concluding,

I don’t know whether the plaintiffs in this case could ultimately meet the demands of the Pike balancing test. They should be permitted to try, though, particularly now that the ordinance has taken effect and evidence of actual effects should be available. I would reverse the dismissal for failure to state a claim and remand for further proceedings.



The “PUPPERS” Act, H.R. 3197, a bill that would prohibit the use of canines in biomedical research at the Veterans Administration by eliminating required funding, is misguided and, if enacted, would be harmful to both humans and animals.

Esteemed scientific associations (listed below) wrote to Congressional representatives, in opposition to H.R. 3197, explaining that while scientists embrace efforts to reduce the number of animals needed in research and to replace animals when possible, animal models are still required before drugs or devices are sufficiently proven to be both safe and efficacious for their intended use.  While the number of dogs involved in biomedical research has been reduced, their contribution remains critical in finding cures for certain diseases and disorders, like the previously incurable and fatal genetic disorder affecting skeletal muscles in both humans and dogs, called Myotubular Myopathy (MTM), recently described here.

Canines are currently playing a vital role in the moonshot to end cancer, aging and Alzheimer’s, heart disease, diabetes, and most recently the first FDA-approved artificial pancreas was brought to fruition because of work at the VA. Additionally, 22 of the 25 most prescribed medications were brought to patients’ bedsides thanks to research with canines.

Quote from letter to Congressional representatives from:

  • American Academy of Neurology (AAN);
  • American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS);
  • American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) ;
  • American Neurological Association (ANA);
  • American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners (ASLAP);
  • American Society for Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET);
  • American Thoracic Society (ATS);
  • Americans for Medical Progress (AMP);
  • Associated Medical Schools of New York (AMSNY);
  • Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO);
  • Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC);
  • Association of American Universities (AAU);
  • Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC);
  • Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU);
  • Baylor College of Medicine California Biomedical Research Association (CBRA);
  • Coalition for the Life Sciences The College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. Comparative Biosciences, Inc. Council On Governmental Relations (COGR);
  • Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB);
  • IACUC 101 Series Massachusetts Society for Medical Research (MSMR);
  • Michigan Society for Medical Research (MISMR);
  • National Animal Interest Alliance (NAIA) National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR);
  • National Association of Veterans’ Research & Education Foundations (NAVREF);
  • New Jersey Association for Biomedical Research (NJABR);
  • North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research (NCABR)
  • Northwest Association for Biomedical Research (NWABR);
  • Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU);
  • Pennsylvania Society for Biomedical Research (PSBR);
  • RxGen SNBL USA, Ltd. Society for Neuroscience (SfN);
  • Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR);
  • States United for Biomedical Research (SUBR);
  • Texas Society for Biomedical Research (TSBR); and
  • University of California, Los Angeles University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Washington University in St. Louis.

Our ability to study and find cures for many human and animal diseases and disorders would not have been obtainable without studies involving animals, including the following medical achievements:

  • the cardiac pacemaker;
  • the first liver transplant;
  • nicotine patch;
  • the discovery of insulin;
  • vaccinations against canine distemper, parvovirus, rabies, coronavirus, leptospirosis, Lyme disease, measles, and hepatitis;
  • prevention of canine intestinal parasitic diseases, fleas, ticks, mites and mange.

Like the entities listed above I look forward to a time when biomedical research does not involve animal testing, but we currently are not knowledgeable or scientifically advanced enough to entirely replace animals with other models.

Therefore, federally proposed bills, including H.R. 3197 and a similar amendment offered by Rep. Dave Brat (R-VA) to the Defense, Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, Legislative Branch, and Energy and Water Development National Security Appropriations Act, 2018, if adopted, would only serve to harm both human and animal health, and should therefore be opposed.